Scientific research and supporting evidence

Inflammation and cancer

L. Coussens & Z. Werb ‘Inflammation and cancer’

General guidance on vitamins and minerals

Lower refined sugar levels

Lower refined sugar and energy dense food levels – general advice and guidance

Fruit, vegetables and legumes

Eat a varied diet with fruit, vegetables and legumes – general advice and guidance

Reduce red meat consumption

Limited red meat intake may reduce colorectal cancer risk – general advice and guidance

‘Mediterranean diet’ and cancer

Mediterranean diet and cancer – general advice and supporting evidence

Mediterranean diet and possible reduced stomach cancer risk
G. Buckland, A. Agudo, L. Luján, P. Jakszyn, H. Bueno-de-Mesquita, D. Palli, H. Boeing, F. Carneiro, V. Krogh, C. Sacerdote, R. Tumino, S. Panico, G. Nesi, J. Manjer, S. Regnér, I. Johansson, R. Stenling, M. Sanchez, M. Dorronsoro, A. Barricarte, C. Navarro, J. Quirós, N. Allen, T. Key, S. Bingham, R. Kaaks, K. Overvad, M. Jensen, A. Olsen, A. Tjønneland, P. Peeters, M. Numans, M. Ocké, F. Clavel-Chapelon, S. Morois, M. Boutron-Ruault, A. Trichopoulou, P. Lagiou, D. Trichopoulos, E. Lund, E. Couto, P. Boffeta, M. Jenab, E. Riboli, D. Romaguera, T. Mouw, and C. González ‘Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition’

Mediterranean diet and possible reduced risk of breast cancer
V. Cottet, M. Touvier, A. Fournier, M. Touillaud, L. Lafay, F. Clavel-Chapelon & M. Boutron-Ruault ‘Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk and Dietary Patterns in the E3N-EPIC Prospective Cohort Study’

Mediterranean diet and possible reduced overall cancer risk
V. Benetou, A. Trichopoulou, P. Orfanos, A. Naska, P. Lagiou, P. Boffetta & D. Trichopoulos ‘Conformity to traditional Mediterranean diet and cancer incidence: the Greek EPIC cohort’

Mediterranean diet and longevity
A. Trichopoulou & E. Vasilopoulou ‘Mediterranean diet and longevity’


Omega-3 and possible cancer cell apoptosis
M. Wendel & A. Heller ‘Anticancer actions of omega-3 fatty acids--current state and future perspectives’

Omega-3 may help reduce risk of certain cancers
S. Larsson, M. Kumlin, M. Ingelman-Sundberg & A. Wolk ‘Dietary long-chain n−3 fatty acids for the prevention of cancer: a review of potential mechanisms’

Cooking techniques - general advice

Influence of cooking techniques on antioxidant potential for culinary herbs and vegetables
M. Chohan, G. Forster-Wilkins & E. Opara ‘Determination of the antioxidant capacity of culinary herbs subjected to various cooking and storage processes using the ABTS(*+) radical cation assay’

Specific ingredients; Scientific research and supporting evidence


Apples may help reduce breast cancer risk
R. Lui ‘Disease-fighting chemicals in apples could reduce the risk of breast cancer, Cornell study in rats suggests’


Artichoke and possible breast cancer cell death
A. Mileo, D. Di Venere Linsalata V, Fraioli R, Miccadei S.
Artichoke polyphenols induce apoptosis and decrease the invasive potential of the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB231.


Avocados and possible lowered cancer risk
Q. Lu, J. Arteaga, Q. Zhang, S. Huerta, V. Go & D. Heber ‘Inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by an avocado extract: role of lipid-soluble bioactive substances’


Berries acting as detoxifiers and antioxidants
L. Labrecque, S. Lamy, A. Chapus, S. Mihoubi, Y. Durocher, B. Cass, M. Bojanowski, D. Gingras & R. Beliveau ‘Combined inhibition of PDGF and VEGF receptors by ellagic acid, a dietary-derived phenolic compound’

Berries potentially helping to stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells
N. Seeram, L. Adams, Y. Zhang, R. Lee, D. Sand, H. Scheuller & D. Heber ‘Blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro’

Berries potentially helping to stop pre-cancerous cells turning malignant
G. Stoner ‘Foodstuffs for Preventing Cancer: The Preclinical and Clinical Development of Berries’

Broccoli and brassica/cruciferous vegetables

Broccoli and brassica vegetables, possibly reducing certain cancer risks
D. Verhoeven, R. Goldbohm, G. van Poppel, H. Verhagen & P. van den Brandt ‘Epidemiological studies on brassica vegetables and cancer risk’

P. Talalay & J. Fahey ‘Phytochemicals from Cruciferous Plants Protect against Cancer by Modulating Carcinogen Metabolism’

Coconut milk

Coconut milk, lauric acid, monolaurin acid and boosting the immune system
B. Richards ‘Monolaurin – A Natural Immune Boosting Powerhouse’


Cumin may help to inhibit stomach and cervical cancer
Gagandeep, S. Dhanalakshmi, E. Méndiz, A. Rao & R. Kale ‘Chemopreventive effects of Cuminum cyminum in chemically induced forestomach and uterine cervix tumors in murine model systems’

Fruits and nuts

Fruits and nuts high in glucaric acid possibly offer some cancer protection
M. Hanausek, Z. Walaszek & T. Slaga ‘Detoxifying cancer causing agents to prevent cancer’

Nutrients found in plums and peaches show potential to inhibit invasive breast cancer cells
M. Vizzotto ‘Inhibition of invasive breast cancer cell growth by selected peach and plum phenolic antioxidants’


Ginger and gingerol may help to inhibit pancreatic cancer
Y. Park, J. Wen, S. Bang, S. Park & S. Song ‘Gingerol Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Cell Death of Mutant p53-expressing Pancreatic Cancer Cells’

Green Tea

Green tea demonstrates some inhibiting effect on cancer cell growth
Yihai Cao & Renhai Cao ‘Angiogenesis inhibited by drinking tea’

M. Demeule, B. Annabi, J. Michaud-Levesque, S. Lamy and R. Beliveau ‘Dietary Prevention of Cancer: Anticancer and Antiangiogenic Properties of Green Tea Polyphenols’

Green tea consumption may reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence
M. Inoue, K. Tajima, M. Mizutani, H. Iwata, T. Iwase, S. Miura, K. Hirose, N. Hamajima, S. Tominaga ‘Regular consumption of green tea and the risk of breast cancer recurrence’


Mangos and possible anticancer properties
G. Noratto, M. Bertoldi, K. Krenek, S. Talcott, P. Stringheta & S. Mertens-Talcott ‘Anticarcinogenic effects of polyphenolics from mango (Mangifera indica) varieties’


Mushrooms and possible breast cancer reduced risk, and possible reduced risk again when combined with green tea intake
M. Zhang, J. Huang, X. Xie & CD. Holman ‘Dietary intakes of mushrooms and green tea combine to reduce the risk of breast cancer in Chinese women’

Oats, whole grains and fruit fibre

Oats, whole grain and fruit fibre potentially helping to reduce breast cancer risk
J. Cade, V. Burley & D. Greenwood ‘Dietary fibre and risk of breast cancer in the UK Women's Cohort Study’

Pears and other foods - soluble/insoluble fibre portions

Olives and olive oil

Olives and olive oil, their antioxidants and possible benefits
R. Owen, R. Haubner, G. Wurtele, W. Hull, B. Spiegelhalder & H. Bartsch ‘Olives and olive oil in cancer prevention’

Olive oil may help reduce breast cancer risk
J. Martin-Moreno, W. Willett, L. Gorgojo, J. Banegas, F. Rodriguez-Artalejo, J. Fernandez-Rodriguez, P. Maisonneuve, P. Boyle ‘Dietary fat, olive oil intake and breast cancer risk’

Olive oil and colorectal cancer
M. Stoneham, M. Goldacre, V. Seagroatt & L. Gill ‘Olive oil, diet and colorectal cancer: an ecological study and a hypothesis’

Onions and ‘Allium’ family vegetables

Onions and possible anticancer properties

Allium vegetables and possible reduced prostate cancer risk
A. Hsing, A. Chokkalingam, Y. Gao, M. Madigan, J. Deng, G. Gridley & J. Fraumeni ‘Allium vegetables and risk of prostate cancer: a population-based study’

Sesame seeds

Sesamin (found in sesame seeds) potentially helping liver function
K. Akimoto, Y. Kitagawa, T. Akamatsu, N. Hirose, M. Sugano, S. Shimizu & H. Yamada ‘Protective effects of sesamin against liver damage caused by alcohol or carbon tetrachloride in rodents’


Spinach may help stop cancer cell division
R. Edenharder, G. Keller, K. Platt & K. Unger ‘Isolation and characterization of structurally novel antimutagenic flavonoids from spinach (Spinacia oleracea)’

Tomatoes, colourful vegetables and lycopene

Cooking tomatoes and other vegetables containing lycopene, may improve lycopene release
Cornell University ‘Cooking Tomatoes Boosts Disease-Fighting Power’

Combining tomatoes and olive oil may boost lycopene absorption
National Cancer Institute; Questions and answers about lycopene

Lycopene may help to reduce general cancer risk
B. Cassileth ‘Lycopene’


Turmeric and possible anti-inflammatory properties
B. Aggarwal, H. Ichikawa, P. Garodia, P. Weerasinghe, G. Sethi, I. Bhatt, M. Pandey, S. Shishodia & M. Nair ‘From traditional Ayurvedic medicine to modern medicine: identification of therapeutic targets for suppression of inflammation and cancer’

Turmeric may help work against breast cancer tumour cells
K. Mehta, P. Pantazis, T. McQueen & BB. Aggarwal ‘Antiproliferative effect of curcumin (diferuloylmethane) against human breast tumor cell lines’


Walnut intake and possible lowered prostate cancer risk
K. Spaccarotella, P. Kris-Etherton, W. Stone, D. Bagshaw, V. Fishell, S. West, F. Lawrence, & T. Hartman ‘The effect of walnut intake on factors related to prostate and vascular health in older men’

Books and further reading

Dr. D. Servan-Schreiber ‘anticancer a new way of life’

Prof. R. Beliveau & Dr. D. Gingras ‘foods to fight cancer’

S. Lie ‘Boost your vitality with Ayurveda’